اقتباسات العهد القديم من النصوص الاوغاريتية

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  • اقتباسات العهد القديم من النصوص الاوغاريتية

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    نخصص بحول الله و قوته هذا الموضوع لنذكر فيه بعضا من الامثلة التي تبين التشابهات بين جملة من نصوص العهد القديم و بعضا من النصوص الادبية التي تم اكتشافها في الاحافير و الالواح الاوغاريتية التي تخص الميثولويجيا المتعلقة بالوثنية الكنعانية .

    و هذه التشابهات لا تخرج من ان تكون احد اثنين :

    1. اقتباسات مباشرة قام بها كتبة العهد القديم من النصوص الادبية الخاصة بالميثولوجيا الكنعانية .

    2. اقتباسات من التراث الشفهي المشترك او السائد بين شعوب منطقة الشرق الادنى
    .

    نبدا على بركة الله .

  • #2
    المثال الاول :اقتباس نص اشعياء 27: 1 و مزمور 74: 13-14 .

    نقرا من سفر اشعياء الاصحاح 27:
    1.فِي ذلِكَ الْيَوْمِ يُعَاقِبُ الرَّبُّ بِسَيْفِهِ الْقَاسِي الْعَظِيمِ الشَّدِيدِ لَوِيَاثَانَ، الْحَيَّةَ الْهَارِبَةَ. لَوِيَاثَانَ الْحَيَّةَ الْمُتَحَوِّيَةَ، وَيَقْتُلُ التِّنِّينَ الَّذِي فِي الْبَحْرِ .

    النص من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
    In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.

    النص بالعبرية :
    בַּיֹּום הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה בְּחַרְבֹו הַקָּשָׁה וְהַגְּדֹולָה וְהַֽחֲזָקָה עַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ בָּרִחַ וְעַל לִוְיָתָן נָחָשׁ עֲקַלָּתֹון וְהָרַג אֶת־הַתַּנִּין אֲשֶׁר בַּיָּֽם׃ ס

    و نقرا من سفر المزامير الاصحاح 74 :
    13 أَنْتَ شَقَقْتَ الْبَحْرَ بِقُوَّتِكَ. كَسَرْتَ رُؤُوسَ التَّنَانِينِ عَلَى الْمِيَاهِ.
    14 أَنْتَ رَضَضْتَ رُؤُوسَ لِوِيَاثَانَ. جَعَلْتَهُ طَعَامًا لِلشَّعْبِ، لأَهْلِ الْبَرِّيَّةِ.

    النص من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
    You broke the heads of Leviathan in pieces, And gave him as food to the people inhabiting the wilderness.

    النص بالعبرية :
    74:13 אַתָּה פֹורַרְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ יָם שִׁבַּרְתָּ רָאשֵׁי תַנִּינִים עַל־הַמָּֽיִם
    74:14 אַתָּה רִצַּצְתָּ רָאשֵׁי לִוְיָתָן תִּתְּנֶנּוּ מַאֲכָל לְעָם לְצִיִּֽים

    اقول: هذه النصوص (و بالاخص اشعياء 27: 1 ) هي اقتباس مباشر من نصوص اوغاريتية خاصة بالاله الوثني الكنعاني بعل و سحقه للوياثان في حوار جرى بينه و بين الالهة الوثنية موت !

    اولا : اقوال النقاد و تصريحهم بالاقتباس و التشابه
    نقرا من كتاب The eschatologization of the divine conflict with the dragon and the sea الفصل الرابع God's conflict with the dragon and the sea لجون داي الفصل الرابع الصفحة 142 :
    The dragon-conflict in Isaiah 27:1and related material in the ‘Isaiah Apocalypse’
    Isaiah 27:1
    On that day the Lord with his hard and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the twisting serpent, Leviathan the crooked serpent, and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea. As has frequently been pointed out, these words from the proto-apocalyptic work in Is. 24-7 bear a very strong resemblance to those in the Ugaritic Baal myth, where Mot addresses Baal as follows: ktmhs. Itn. btn. brh. tkly. btn. `qltn ‘Because you smote Leviathan the twisting serpent (and) made an end of the crooked serpent...’ (CTA 5.I.1-2 = KTU 1.5.I.1-2). Again, in CTA 3.IIID.37-9 (= KTU 13.III.40-42), Leviathan the crooked serpent is spoken of as a dragon as in Is. 27:1, l’istbm. tnn. ‘istm[ ]mhst. btn `qltn slyt. d. sb`t. r’asm ‘Surely I lifted up the dragon, I... (and) smote the crooked serpent, the tyrant with the seven heads.’ The close similarity is all the more remarkable both in view of the time-scale involved and because the word ` a qallaton ‘crooked’ which is here paralleled in Ugaritic is found nowhere else in the Old Testament (though the plural of the verb `ql [Hab. 1:4] and the adjective `qalqal [Judg, 5:6, Ps. 125:5] are so attested, and cf. Rahab which appears as nahas bariah ‘twisting serpent’ in Job 26:13). The striking parallelism between the relatively late text in Is. 27:1and the Ugaritic texts almost a millennium earlier is a reminder that the closeness of the language of Old Testament texts to that of the Ugaritic texts is not necessarily an indication of an early date for the Old Testament passages in question. Quite often the parallels are in relatively late texts.
    The Ugaritic texts cited above make it clear that Is. 27:1 is describing one monster, not three, as has sometimes been supposed. What is referred to in Is. 27:1 parallels the event referred to in Is. 24:21, ‘On that day the Lord will punish the host of heaven, in heaven, and the kings of the earth, on the earth.’ The reference to ‘the host of heaven’ in this parallel verse has sometimes been thought to indicate that the monster references in Is. 27:1 allude to three constellations, Serpens, Draco and Hydra.2 However, whereas Is. 24:21 refers to the kings of the earth as a whole
    143
    together with their angelic princes, it is probable that the reference to the defeat of Leviathan in Is. 27:1 alludes to the downfall of one particular hated power of the time, in view of the use of the sea monster imageryto refer to particular hostile nations elsewhere in the Old Testament
    https://jbburnett.com/resources/day_...ict-dragon.pdf

    و هذا يعني ان النص الاوغاريتي سبق نص اشعياء في تدوينه بالف سنة كما ذكر جون داي فلا مجال للقول بان النص الاوغاريتي قد اخذ من اشعياء !!!

    و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 510 :
    41:1. Leviathan. Leviathan has often been identified as a crocodile, which were found mostly in Egypt (where it symbolized kingly power and greatness) but also sparsely in Palestine. However, the multiple heads in Psalm 74:14 and the fiery breath here in verses 19-21 make the crocodile identification difficult. Alternatively Leviathan has been depicted as a sea monster (see Ps 74:14; Is 27:1). Support for this is found in Ugaritic texts which contain detailed descriptions of a chaos beast, representing the seas or watery anarchy, in the form of a many-headed, twisting sea serpent who is defeated by Baal. There is a close affinity between the description of Leviathan in Isaiah as a “coiling serpent” and the Ugaritic Baal epic, which speaks of how the storm god “smote Litan the twisting serpent.” In both cases there is a sense of the god of order and fertility vanquishing a chaos monster. Several other passages in the Old Testament mention Leviathan, but most of them, like Psalm 74:14, speak in terms of God’s creative act that establishes control over watery chaos (personified by the sea serpent).
    file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (1).pdf

    ثانيا : مقارنة نص اشعياء 27 : 1 مع النص الاوغاريتي الخاص ببعل ( بالترجمة الانجليزية ) :
    النص الاوغاريتي :
    Because you smote Leviathan the twisting serpent (and) made an end of the crooked serpent.

    نص اشعياء 27: 1 :
    In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.
    التشابه واضح و لا يمكن انكاره

    ثالثا : مقارنة تاريخ تدوين كل من النصين .
    تاريخ تدوين سفر اشعياء :
    ترجع بعض اصحاحات سفر اشعياء الى القرن الثامن قبل الميلاد و البعض الاخر الى القرن السادس قبل الميلاد، و ينتمي الاصحاح 27 الى المجموعة التي ترجع الى القرن السادس قبل الميلاد .
    نقرا من الترجمة الرهبانية اليسوعية الصفحة 1513- 1514:
    (( غير ان تعدد المؤلفين لا يحول دون التكلم على وحدة الكتاب . شرط ان يبحث عن هذه الوحدة في تواصل يمتد عدة قرون و في استمرار بعض المواضيع . و اوضح دليل على تعدد المؤلفين يظهر في الفصل الاربعين حيث يبدا مؤلف يقال له سفر اشعيا الثاني فبدون اي تمهيد نرى انفسنا منقولين من القرن الثامن الى حقبة الجلاء القرن السادس..... و اخيرا فان مجموعة الفصول 24- 27 المسماة رؤيا اشعيا بعيدة جدا عن عقلية القرن الثامن بعيدة جدا عن عقلية اهل القرن الثامن و تصوراتهم ))

    تاريخ النص الاوغاريتي الخاص ببعل (دورة بعل) :
    يرجع تاريخ النصوص المنقوشة في الالواح الاوغاريتية الى منتصف الالفية الثانية قبل الميلاد .
    نقرا من الموسوعة البريطانية :
    ((Knowledge of Baal’s personality and functions derives chiefly from a number of tablets uncovered from 1929 onward at Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra), in northern Syria, and dating to the middle of the 2nd millennium BCE. The tablets, although closely attached to the worship of Baal at his local temple, probably represent Canaanite belief generally. Fertility was envisaged in terms of seven-year cycles. In the mythology of Canaan, Baal, the god of life and fertility, locked in mortal combat with Mot, the god of death and sterility. If Baal triumphed, a seven-year cycle of fertility would ensue; but, if he were vanquished by Mot, seven years of drought and famine would ensue.))
    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Baal-ancient-deity

    و نقرا من &'Ugarit and the Bible: An Introduction and Case Study الصفحة 4 :
    ((Excavations of the Grand Palace began in 1948 and have led to the discovery of several different archives, including historical documents, administrative documents and correspondence, documents about the capital, economic texts, and legal documents (IDB, ABD). While the administrative documents are mostly in Ugaritic, international letters and most legal texts are in Akkadian, which apparently was the international language of its time. In religious texts, those that deal with local belief and practice are predominantly in Ugaritic while those that are borrowed from Mesopotamia are in Akkadian. All told, nine different languages are attested in Ugaritic inscriptions, mostly from the period between 1400-1186 (OEANE, “Ugaritic Inscriptions”). The palace, which covers about 3 acres (OEANE), was a multi-story structure made mostly of cut stone but also of uncut stone, wood, and clay (ABD). Other, smaller palaces have also been excavated and have contained smaller archives (ABD). ))
    https://www.academia.edu/6274239/Uga...and_Case_Study

    هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

    تعليق


    • #3
      : اقتباس نص اشعياء 24 : 18-19 .

      نقرا من سفر اشعياء الاصحاح 24:
      18 وَيَكُونُ أَنَّ الْهَارِبَ مِنْ صَوْتِ الرُّعْبِ يَسْقُطُ فِي الْحُفْرَةِ، وَالصَّاعِدَ مِنْ وَسَطِ الْحُفْرَةِ يُؤْخَذُ بِالْفَخِّ. لأَنَّ مَيَازِيبَ مِنَ الْعَلاَءِ انْفَتَحَتْ، وَأُسُسَ الأَرْضِ تَزَلْزَلَتْ.
      19 اِنْسَحَقَتِ الأَرْضُ انْسِحَاقًا. تَشَقَّقَتِ الأَرْضُ تَشَقُّقًا. تَزَعْزَعَتِ الأَرْضُ تَزَعْزُعًا

      ترجمة الملك جيمس
      And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake.
      The earth is violently broken, The earth is split open, The earth is shaken exceedingly.

      النص بالعبرية :
      24:18 וְֽהָיָה הַנָּס מִקֹּול הַפַּחַד יִפֹּל אֶל־הַפַּחַת וְהָֽעֹולֶה מִתֹּוךְ הַפַּחַת יִלָּכֵד בַּפָּח כִּֽי־אֲרֻבֹּות מִמָּרֹום נִפְתָּחוּ וַֽיִּרְעֲשׁוּ מֹוסְדֵי אָֽרֶץ׃
      24:19 רֹעָה הִֽתְרֹעֲעָה הָאָרֶץ פֹּור הִֽתְפֹּורְרָה אֶרֶץ מֹוט הִֽתְמֹוטְטָה אָֽרֶץ

      النص يحتوي على عدد من الافكار المقتبسة من النصوص الاوغاريتية الخاصة بالاله الوثني بعل مثل النوافذ التي تفتح من السماء و تزلزل الارض من اسسها بل لا يقتصر الامر على تشابه الافكار حيث يتعداها الى تشابه الالفاظ في النصوص.

      اولا : اقوال النقدا و تصريحهم بالتشابه .
      نقرا من كتاب The eschatologization of the divine conflict with the dragon and the sea الفصل الرابع God's conflict with the dragon and the sea لجون داي الصفحة 5-6 :
      ((Other related mythologicalmotifs in Isaiah 24-7
      The fact that Is. 27:1 bears such a strikingly close relationship to the Ugaritic Baal epic leads one to ask whether other motifs in Is. 24--7 derive from the same circle of ancient mythic ideas. This is in fact the case, although their full number and significance have not previously been noted.14 One instance is to be found in Is. 24:18b-19,15 where we read
      v. 18b For the windows on high are opened,
      and the foundations of the earth tremble.
      v. 19 The earth is utterly broken,
      the earth is rent asunder
      the earth is violently shaken.
      With this one should compare CTA 4.VII.25ff. (= KTU 1.4.VII.25ff.)
      25 yptb. 1?(26)ln. bbhtm. He opened a lattice in the mansion,
      ‘urbt (27) bqrb. hk[lm.] a window in the midst of the pal[ace),
      [yp]th (28) b’l. bdqt [.’rp]t Baal [ope]ned a rift (in) the clouds).
      146
      29 qlh. qds[.] bH. y]tn Ba[al utt]ered his holy voice,
      30 ytny. bl s[’at.s]pth Baal repeated the is[sue] of his lips;
      31 qlh. q[ds. t]r. ’ars (he uttered) his h[oly] voice [(and)] the earth did
      q[uake],
      32 [s’at. spth.] griri (he repeated) [the issue of his lips] (and) the rocks
      (did quake)
      The striking thing is not merely the parallelism of the god’s theophany and the quaking of the earth in response, but the fact that the Ugaritic text speaks of BaaFs opening a window (‘urbt) in his palace, corresponding to the clouds Just as Is. 24:18b says that the windows on high were opened (’ a rubbot mimmarom niptahu)
      .... . However, it is striking that Is. 24:19 makes it clear that the primary emphasis here is on the theophany in the thunder, resulting in the shaking of the earth, rather than in the rain, just as in the Ugaritic passage, and similarly both the Ugaritic and Isaianic passages, unlike Genesis, have an asociation with the theme of the kingship of the deity. It thus seems likely that Is. 24 has combined motifs from the Noah story in Genesis with mythic themes concerning the theophany of the enthroned deity, ultimately deriving from Baal mythology,))
      https://jbburnett.com/resources/day_...ict-dragon.pdf

      و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 38 :
      ((7:11. floodgates opened. The text uses the poeticphrase “windows of heaven” to describe the openings through which the rain came down. This is not scientific language but reflects the perspective of the observer, much as we would speak of the sun “setting.” The only other occurrence of such a term in ancient Near Eastern literature is in the Canaanite myth of *Baal building his house, where the “window” of his house is described as a rift in the clouds. But even here it is not associated with rain. Alternate terminology occurs in the Mesopotamian texts, where gates of heaven are in the east and west for the sun to use in itsrising and setting. Clouds and winds, however, also enter by these gates.))
      file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (2).pdf

      ثانيا : التشابه بين النصوص (باستخدام الترجمة الانجليزية لكلا من النصين ) .

      النص الاوغاريتي :
      He opened a lattice in the mansion,‘a window in the midst of the pal[ac [ Baal [ope]ned a rift (in) the clouds).Ba[al utt]ered his holy voice, Baal repeated the is[sue] of his lips; (he uttered) his h[oly] voice [(and)] the earth did q[uake], [ (he repeated) [the issue of his lips] (and) the rocks (did quake) .

      نص اشعياء 24: 18 -19 من ترجمة الملك جيمس
      And it shall come to pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall fall into the pit; and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit shall be taken in the snare: for the windows from on high are open, and the foundations of the earth do shake.
      The earth is utterly broken down, the earth is clean dissolved, the earth is moved exceedingly.

      الفقرات في النصوص اعلاه تكاد تكون متطابقة فيما يتعلق بنوافذ او ميازيب السماء و كذلك تزلزل الارض و تصدعها و التشابه واضح لا يمكن انكاره مع الاخذ بعين الاعتبار الفارق بين تاريخ تدوين سفر اشعياء و تاريخ النقوش و الالواح الاوغاريتية و قد فصلنا هذا في الاعلى بما يغني عن الاعادة .

      هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

      تعليق


      • #4
        المثال الثالث : اقتباس نص مزمور 15: 1 و مزمور 19 : 4-6 .

        نقرا من سفر المزامير الاصحاح 15 :
        1 يَا رَبُّ، مَنْ يَنْزِلُ فِي مَسْكَنِكَ؟ مَنْ يَسْكُنُ فِي جَبَلِ قُدْسِكَ؟

        النص بترجمة الملك جيمس
        A Psalm of David. LORD, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall dwell in thy holy hill?

        النص بالعبري
        15:1 מִזְמֹור לְדָוִד יְהֹוָה מִי־יָגוּר בְּאָהֳלֶךָ מִֽי־יִשְׁכֹּן בְּהַר קָדְשֶֽׁךָ׃

        و نقرا من سفر المزامير الاصحاح 19
        4 فِي كُلِّ الأَرْضِ خَرَجَ مَنْطِقُهُمْ، وَإِلَى أَقْصَى الْمَسْكُونَةِ كَلِمَاتُهُمْ. جَعَلَ لِلشَّمْسِ مَسْكَنًا فِيهَا،5 وَهِيَ مِثْلُ الْعَرُوسِ الْخَارِجِ مِنْ حَجَلَتِهِ. يَبْتَهِجُ مِثْلَ الْجَبَّارِ لِلسِّبَاقِ فِي الطَّرِيقِ.
        6 مِنْ أَقْصَى السَّمَاوَاتِ خُرُوجُهَا، وَمَدَارُهَا إِلَى أَقَاصِيهَا، وَلاَ شَيْءَ يَخْتَفِي مِنْ حَرِّهَا.

        النص من الترجمة الرهبانية اليسوعية
        5 بل في الأَرضِ كُلِّها سُطورٌ بارِزة، وكَلِماتٌ إِلى أَقاصي الدُّنْيا بَيِّنة. هُناكَ لِلشَّمسِ نَصَبَ خَيمةً،
        6 وهي كالعَريسِ الخارِجِ مِن خِدرِه، وكالجَبَّارِ تَبتَهِجُ في عَدْوِها.

        النص بترجمة الملك جيمس
        Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,
        Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.

        His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.

        النص بالعبرية
        19:4 בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ יָצָא קַוָּם וּבִקְצֵה תֵבֵל מִלֵּיהֶם לַשֶּׁמֶשׁ שָֽׂם־אֹהֶל בָּהֶֽם
        19:5 וְהוּא כְּחָתָן יֹצֵא מֵחֻפָּתֹו יָשִׂישׂ כְּגִבֹּור לָרוּץ אֹֽרַח
        19:6 מִקְצֵה הַשָּׁמַיִם מֹֽוצָאֹו וּתְקוּפָתֹו עַל־קְצֹותָם וְאֵין נִסְתָּר מֵֽחַמָּתֹו

        اقول : ان النص في مزمور 15 ماخوذ من الفكرة و المعتقد القديم لدى شعوب الشرق الادنى ان الالهة لها مساكن و خيام في السماء و كل اله له خيمته المستقلة و لذا نجد المزمور 19 يصرح بكل وضوح ان الله جهز للشمس خيمة لتسكن فيها و انها تكون مثل العروس عند الشروق لانها تخرج من خيمتها بكل بهائها (و ان كانت الشمس ليست الهة) .
        و نجد هذه الفكرة بكل وصوح في النصوص الاوغاريتية التي تذكر قصة طلب الاله الوثني بعل الذي طلب من الاله الاعلى (ايل) ان يجعل له خيمة في السماء كبقية الالهة
        .

        نقرا ما ذكره ريتشارد كليفورد في Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries, Psalm 1-72 الصفحة 113 :
        (( God has made a tent for the sun (v. 4c) which would have been an elaborate tent dwelling befitting a heavenly personage. The gods in the Ugaritic texts had such tent dwellings, and some biblical texts (eg Pss 15:1, 27:5, 61:4) mention the tent of Yahweh. In one Ugaritic myth, the storm god, Baal, complains to the high god El that he has no tent like the other gods, which is an indirect way of asking an increase in status. That Yahweh makes a tent for the sun demonstrates that the sun is thoroughly subordinate figure in the heavenly world, a servant (albeit an important one) of the Lord rather than an independent deity))



        و مثل هذه الفكرة موجودة في نصوص اخرى في سفر المزامير مثل
        مزمور 27 : 5 لأَنَّهُ يُخَبِّئُنِي فِي مَظَلَّتِهِ فِي يَوْمِ الشَّرِّ. يَسْتُرُنِي بِسِتْرِ خَيْمَتِهِ. عَلَى صَخْرَةٍ يَرْفَعُنِي.
        مزمور 61 : 4لأَسْكُنَنَّ فِي مَسْكَنِكَ إِلَى الدُّهُورِ. أَحْتَمِي بِسِتْرِ جَنَاحَيْكَ. سِلاَهْ.

        نقرا من الترجمة الرهبانية اليسوعية :
        مزمور 27 :5 لأَنَّه في خَيمَتِه يَومَ الشَّرِّ يَخبَأُني، وبِسِترِ خِبائِه يَستُرُني وعلى صَخرَةٍ يَرفَعُني
        مزمور 61 :5 لَيتَني أَسكُنُ مَدى الدُّهورِ في خَيمَتِكَ، وأَعتَصِمُ بِسِتْرِ جَناحَيكَ.

        و كما قلنا فان الاعتقاد بسكن الالهة في خيام خاصة لهم في السماء كان معتقدا شائعا لدى شعوب المنطقة كلها
        نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 522:
        ((19:6. ancient perceptions of sun’s journey. In many ancient Near Eastern cultures it was assumed that the sun ran a daily course through the heavens. Mesopotamian texts refer to the gates of the heavens where the sun enters and exits. In these texts all of the heavenly bodies have paths or courses that they follow, represented as bands across the sky. Egyptian materials also offer these concepts in both text and iconography. The sun god is portrayed as riding in his barque across the skies between entry and exit spots on either horizon))
        file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (3).pdf

        و نقرا في حاشية الترجمة الرهبانية اليسوعية الصفحة 1139 :
        (( (4) يستعمل صاحب المزمور في كلامه عن الشمس التي خلقها الرب عبارات وردت ايضا في الاساطير البابلية ))
        file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/المقدس الطبعة اليسوعية (20).pdf

        هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

        يتبع

        تعليق


        • #5
          المثال الرابع : اقتباس نص مزمور 29 : 3-4 .

          نقرا من سفر المزامير الاصحاح 29 :
          3 صَوْتُ الرَّبِّ عَلَى الْمِيَاهِ. إِلهُ الْمَجْدِ أَرْعَدَ. الرَّبُّ فَوْقَ الْمِيَاهِ الْكَثِيرَةِ.
          4 صَوْتُ الرَّبِّ بِالْقُوَّةِ. صَوْتُ الرَّبِّ بِالْجَلاَلِ.

          ترجمة الملك جيمس
          The voice of the LORD is upon the waters: the God of glory thundereth: the LORD is upon many waters.
          The voice of the LORD is powerful; the voice of the LORD is full of majesty.

          النص العبري
          29:3 קֹול יְהוָה עַל־הַמָּיִם אֵֽל־הַכָּבֹוד הִרְעִים יְהוָה עַל־מַיִם רַבִּֽים
          29:4 קֹול־יְהוָה בַּכֹּחַ קֹול יְהוָה בֶּהָדָֽר

          اقول : المزمور يصف صوت الرب العلي وقد استعمل عبارة ارعد للاشارة الى ذلك و هذا ناتج من تاثر كتبة العهد القديم بالتراث الكنعاني القديم حيث فيه اشارات عديدة الى سماع صوت الهتهم في الرعد، وقد ذهب معظم النقاد - بعد دراسة البناء اللغوي و الفكري و السياق الكامل للمزمور - الى ترجيح كون كاتب او مؤلف المزمور 29 اقتبس من شعر كنعاني قديم بينما ذهب البعض الاخر الى ان المزمور كله كنعاني حيث ان مؤلف المزمور 29 نقل الشعر الكنعاني الا انه استبدل اسم بعل باسم يهوه .

          نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 525 - 526
          ((29:1. comparison to Ugaritic hymn. This psalm has more connections to Ugaritic literature than any other psalm. A commonly cited scholarly view goes so far as to claim that this psalm was originally a Phoenician/Canaanite hymn that was modified and adapted into the Hebrew religious corpus. It is claimed that all three of the places named are in Syria (vv. 6-8) and that the psalm features terms, concepts and even grammatical structures that are more familiar from Ugaritic than from the Old Testament. However, though there are sufficient parallels and similarities to identify Canaanite-like elements in the psalm, there is as yet no evidence of a Canaanite original. All of the elements that have been identified as Canaanite in nature also occur in other clearly Israelite settings, so they only show the general similarities that existed between Israelite and Canaanite language and culture. It is possible that the psalmist is using this psalm to attach to Yahweh many of the Baal functions but not to argue against Baal so much as to elevate Yahweh and proclaim his glory. On the other hand, it would present no problem if the psalmist did choose to pattern his composition after a Canaanite original so that praise was transferred from Baal to Yahweh.29:1. mighty ones. In Canaanite mythology the “mighty ones” or “sons of god” were lesser gods who were subordinate to El, the king of the gods. In the Old Testament the phrase . refers to angels who gathered in Yahweh’s heavenly court (see Ps 89:7; 103:20; 1 Kings 22:19; Is 6:2; Job 1:6; 2:1). 29:3. thundering voice. Ancient Near Eastern literature is full of references to storm gods whose voices are heard in thunder. These include Baal in Ugaritic and Amarna texts and Adad in Akkadian texts. It is also common in descriptions of Yahweh (see comment on 7:13).))
          file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (2).pdf

          و نقرا من ما ذكره ريتشارد كليفورد في Abingdon Old Testament Commentaries, Psalm 1-72 الصفحة 153- 154
          (( Modern readers need to be reminded of the narrative implied in this hymn: the combat myth telling of the origin of religiopolotical authority in the universe. According to the myth, there was a threat to the stability of the world, which the gods could not defeat. An outsider god was selected to go out to battle and he defeated the monster, restored order, and was given ultimate authority by the divine assembly. The myth is attested in Mesopotamian and Canaanite literature and in the Bible. This psalm concentrates on only one moment of the story: the acclamation by the heavenly beings of Yahweh's sole divinity........On the basis of his pioneering work on the Ugaritic myths, which were recovered beginning in 1929, the distinguished Semitist H. L. Ginsberg proposed that Ps 29 is an Israelite adaption of a Canaanite hymn to the storm god. The majority of scholars recognize the correctness of his observation, which explains so well the details in this poem. ))




          و نقرا من THE UGARITIC BAAL CYCLE: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST الصفحة 8 :
          ((The two most important gods in the times of the Ancient Near East were gods that had influence on rain and war. Eventually some of these gods would naturally have combined characteristics such as this. Baal in the Baal Cycle has the attributes to be able to bring the rain and smite his foes. There are instances in the Old Testament where it the author uses “Baal language” to describe Yahweh. Exodus 15 is Moses’ song about Yahweh smiting the Egyptians by sweeping them up into the Red Sea. There are several Baal allusions used as Yahweh is described as bring a storm that caused the sea to swallow the Egyptians. Psalm 29:3-4 also has some Baal language in it. It says “The voice of the LORD is over the waters; the God of glory thunders, the LORD over many waters. The voice of the LORD is powerful; the voice of the LORD is full of majesty.” The authors know full well that Baal is the storm god, and they use take as many opportunities as they can to show that Yahweh is sovereign over the skies so these types of allusions are plentiful in the Old Testament.))





          و نقرا ما قاله بولس الفغالي في كتابه مسيرة الكتاب من التكوين إلى الرؤيا (2000) الفصل الثالث سفر المزامير والعالم الكنعانيّ :
          ((والمزمور الثالث والأخير الذي نشير إليه في هذه العجالة، هو مز 29. إنه مديح يدعو أبناء الله، يدعو الآلهة، كي تنشد عظمة الإله. صار في النص البيبلي "يهوه". "قدّموا للرب (ليهوه) يا أبناء الله، قدّموا للرب مجدًا وعزة". امّا في الاصل، فعلى ابناء الآلهة أن ينشدوا بعل اله العاصفة. "لا شيء يقف في وجه بعل الذي يعمل في البحر والبر. الذي يحطّم الأرز الشامخ على جبل لبنان ويزلزل البرية". وهكذا تبدو قدرته فوق كل قدرة على الأرض.
          دخل هذا المزمور الذي هو نشيد للرعد ولبعل إله الرعد في سفر التوراة. فصار "ابناء الآلهة" "قبائل الشعوب". فنقرأ في مز 96: 7: "قدمّوا للرب يا قبائل الشعوب، قدّموا للرب مجدًا وعزّة". وموضع النشيد صار هيكل أورشليم حيث الله حاضر وسط مدينته وشعبه. أما ما يريد الكاتب أن يعلن، فقدرة الله على الجبال العالية والاشجار الباسقة والحيوانات التي لم يستطع الإنسان أن يدجّنها. بل هو يبيّن حماية الله لشعبه. قد تحطّم العاصفة كل شيء في طريقها، ولكنها في الواقع تدور حول أرض فلسطين: تنطلق من البحر فتصل إلى جبل لبنان وتسير شرقي فلسطين، في البرية، ثم جنوبي فلسطين في قادش، وتعود إلى البحر. وهكذا تبقى أرض الرب بأمان، فلا يصيبها الطوفان كما أصاب البشرّية في بداية التاريخ.))

          هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

          يتبع

          تعليق


          • #6
            المثال الخامس : اقتباس نص مزمور 18 : 4- 19 .

            نقرا من سفر المزامير الاصحاح 18 :
            4 اِكْتَنَفَتْنِي حِبَالُ الْمَوْتِ، وَسُيُولُ الْهَلاَكِ أَفْزَعَتْنِي.5 حِبَالُ الْهَاوِيَةِ حَاقَتْ بِي. أَشْرَاكُ الْمَوْتِ انْتَشَبَتْ بِي.
            6 فِي ضِيقِي دَعَوْتُ الرَّبَّ، وَإِلَى إِلهِي صَرَخْتُ، فَسَمِعَ مِنْ هَيْكَلِهِ صَوْتِي، وَصُرَاخِي قُدَّامَهُ دَخَلَ أُذُنَيْهِ.
            7 فَارْتَجَّتِ الأَرْضُ وَارْتَعَشَتْ، أُسُسُ الْجِبَالِ ارْتَعَدَتْ وَارْتَجَّتْ لأَنَّهُ غَضِبَ.
            8 صَعِدَ دُخَانٌ مِنْ أَنْفِهِ، وَنَارٌ مِنْ فَمِهِ أَكَلَتْ. جَمْرٌ اشْتَعَلَتْ مِنْهُ.
            9 طَأْطَأَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَنَزَلَ، وَضَبَابٌ تَحْتَ رِجْلَيْهِ.
            10 رَكِبَ عَلَى كَرُوبٍ وَطَارَ، وَهَفَّ عَلَى أَجْنِحَةِ الرِّيَاحِ.
            11 جَعَلَ الظُّلْمَةَ سِتْرَهُ. حَوْلَهُ مِظَلَّتَهُ ضَبَابَ الْمِيَاهِ وَظَلاَمَ الْغَمَامِ.
            12 مِنَ الشُّعَاعِ قُدَّامَهُ عَبَرَتْ سُحُبُهُ. بَرَدٌ وَجَمْرُ نَارٍ.
            13 أَرْعَدَ الرَّبُّ مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ، وَالْعَلِيُّ أَعْطَى صَوْتَهُ، بَرَدًا وَجَمْرَ نَارٍ.
            14 أَرْسَلَ سِهَامَهُ فَشَتَّتَهُمْ، وَبُرُوقًا كَثِيرَةً فَأَزْعَجَهُمْ،
            15 فَظَهَرَتْ أَعْمَاقُ الْمِيَاهِ، وَانْكَشَفَتْ أُسُسُ الْمَسْكُونَةِ مِنْ زَجْرِكَ يَا رَبُّ، مِنْ نَسْمَةِ رِيحِ أَنْفِكَ.
            16 أَرْسَلَ مِنَ الْعُلَى فَأَخَذَنِي. نَشَلَنِي مِنْ مِيَاهٍ كَثِيرَةٍ.
            17 أَنْقَذَنِي مِنْ عَدُوِّي الْقَوِيِّ، وَمِنْ مُبْغِضِيَّ لأَنَّهُمْ أَقْوَى مِنِّي.
            18 أَصَابُونِي فِي يَوْمِ بَلِيَّتِي، وَكَانَ الرَّبُّ سَنَدِي.
            19 أَخْرَجَنِي إِلَى الرُّحْبِ. خَلَّصَنِي لأَنَّهُ سُرَّ بِي.

            اقول : مؤلف المزمور او كاتبه اقتبس اثناء حديثه عن غضب الرب في الاعداد السابقة الاوصاف الخاصة باله الارياح و العواصف الوثني الكنعاني بعل ، و معظم ما هو مذكور يمثل اعتقادات الوثنيين الكنعانيين ببعل و لذا ذهب جماعة من النقاد الي ان النص اعلاه مقتبس من الاشعار و الاساطير الكنعانية .

            نقرا ما قاله مارك سميث في كتابه The Early History of God : Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel الصفحة 55 - 56:
            (( Psalm 18 (2 Sam 22) 14-16 (E 13-15) likewise juxtaposes El and Baal imagery or titles for Yahweh.....
            This passage bears two explicit hallmarks of El language within a passage primarily describing a storm theophany of the type predicated of Baalin Ugaritic literature)
            )


            و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 521 :
            ((18:8 smoke from nostrils, fire from mouth. This imagery is not found elsewhere in the ancient Near East. The closest example is in Enuma Elish, where it is said of Marduk that when his lips moved, fire blazed forth. Though Yahweh could not be portrayed in any form (animal or otherwise), poetic description of Yahweh by means of animal imagery in order to highlight certain attributes was legitimate (lion/leopard in Hos 13:7; flying birds in Is 31:5; bear in Lam 3:10; wild ox in Num 24:8
            [all translations but NIV]).
            18:9. dark clouds under feet. The term for “dark clouds” has been found in the Ugaritic epic of Baal and Anath, where the god Baal is described as the “rider of the clouds” and his “voice” as the sound and fury of thunder and lightning
            18:10. mounted cherubim and flew. In Syro-Palestine iconography deities are often portrayed standing on the backs of wild creatures (usually bulls). An Assyrian relief from Maltaya pictures seven gods, each standing on the back of a different animal. Most intriguing is an Assyrian relief that pictures a storm god replete with weapons, riding the back of a composite creature with a lion’s body, an eagle’s wings and a bull’s head. In the Old Testament Yahweh is described as enthroned on the cherubim in the Holy of Holies in the temple (see comment on 1 Sam 4:3-4), and in Ezekiel’s throne vision (chaps. 1, 10) Yahweh is transported on a mobile chariot-throne borne by composite creatures
            18:12-15. weapons of divine warrior. Yahweh’s arrows are usually considered to be bolts of lightning. In the divine warrior motif, the deity fights the battles and defeats the deities of the enemy. In Assyria, Nergal is the King of Battle, and Ishtar is viewed as a war goddess. The latter rains down flames in war. The Canaanite Baal and the Babylonian Marduk are divine warriors. Thunder and lightning were considered to regularly accompany the presence of a deity in the ancient Near East, particularly in a battle setting. From the Sumerian Exaltation of Inanna to the Hittite myths about the Storm God to the Akkadian and Ugaritic mythologies, the gods are viewed as thundering in judgment against their enemies. Baal is depicted as grasping a handful of thunderbolts. Thundering terminology is also picked up in royal rhetoric as Hittite or Assyrian kings portray themselves as the instruments))
            file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame%20(2).pdf

            و نقرا ما قاله بولس الفغالي في كتابه مسيرة الكتاب من التكوين إلى الرؤيا (2000) الفصل الثالث سفر المزامير والعالم الكنعانيّ:
            ((3- المزمور الثامن عشر
            ونتوقّف الآن بشكل خاص عند بعض المزامير حيث نرى الأثر الكنعاني واضحًا جدًا. الاول مز 18 الذي هو نشيد ملكي يُنسب إلى داود ويُقرأ أيضًا في 1 صم 22. يُقسم هذا المزمور قسمين. في القسم الأول يمتدح المرتّل الله (آ 2-4) ثم يصوّر خطرًا يقود إلى الموت (آ 5-7). وبعد ذلك، يصوّر في لغة قريبة جدًا من الاسلوب الكنعاني، تدخّل الله في شكل تيوفانيا أو ظهور إلهي. وفي القسم الثاني الذي يهمّنا أقل (آ 31 ي) يمتدح المرتّل الربّ الذي نصره.
            تتحدث آ 1 عن يد شاول. ولكن بالاحرى عن "يد شيول"، أي يد عالم الموتى، كما في الادب الاكادي، أو الأدب الاوغاريتي حيث نقرأ: "منذ يوم نجيتني من فم الموت". وتبدأ التيوفانيا أو ظهور الله. فنجد نفوسنا في خط الكاهن العرّاف (بارو في عالم بلاد والرافدين) الذي ينصح الملك بالذهاب إلى الحرب أو يعدم الذهاب. هنا نتذكر 1 مل 22 حيث أراد ملك إسرائيل وملك يهوذا أن يستعيدا راموت جلعاد، فالتمسا كلام الرب. فقال لهما "العرّافون": "الله يدفعها إلى يد الملك". ولكن الاله هو الذي يحارب. هو الذي يُلقي الرعب في قلب الاعداء. يظهر بعل في العاصفة وهو يشهر سلاحه (كما رُسم في راس شمرا) فيتبدّد الاعداء.
            نقرأ مثل هذا عن الرب الذي أرعد من السماء وأسمع صوته، الذي "أرسل سهامه فشتّتهم، وأكثر البروق فزعجهم. أرسل من العلاء فأخذني، وانتشلني من المياه الغامرة. أنقذني من عدوي الشديد ومن مبغض أقوى مني". "ركب على كروب وطار، وخُطف على أجنحة الرياح" (آ 11). تلك عبارة من رأس شمرا (ر ك ب. ع ر ف ت) نجد مثلها في مز 68: 5 (ر ك ب. ب. ع ر ب و ت). هذه الصورة تقودنا إلى عالم الاشوريين ومنه إلى العالم الارامي والكنعاني حيث يُعتبر الكروب مركبة لله.))

            هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

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            • #7
              المثال السادس : اقتباس مزمور 48 و 46 :

              نقرا من مزمور 46 :
              1 اَللهُ لَنَا مَلْجَأٌ وَقُوَّةٌ. عَوْنًا فِي الضِّيْقَاتِ وُجِدَ شَدِيدًا.
              2 لِذلِكَ لاَ نَخْشَى وَلَوْ تَزَحْزَحَتِ الأَرْضُ، وَلَوِ انْقَلَبَتِ الْجِبَالُ إِلَى قَلْبِ الْبِحَارِ.
              3 تَعِجُّ وَتَجِيشُ مِيَاهُهَا. تَتَزَعْزَعُ الْجِبَالُ بِطُمُوِّهَا. سِلاَهْ.
              4 نَهْرٌ سَوَاقِيهِ تُفَرِّحُ مَدِينَةَ اللهِ، مَقْدَسَ مَسَاكِنِ الْعَلِيِّ.5 اللهُ فِي وَسَطِهَا فَلَنْ تَتَزَعْزَعَ. يُعِينُهَا اللهُ عِنْدَ إِقْبَالِ الصُّبْحِ.

              النص من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
              1 (To the chief Musician for the sons of Korah, A Song upon Alamoth.) God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
              2 Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be removed, and though the mountains be carried into the midst of the sea;
              3 Though the waters thereof roar and be troubled, though the mountains shake with the swelling thereof. Selah.
              4 There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.
              5 God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved: God shall help her, and that right early.

              و نقرا من مزمور 48 :
              1 عَظِيمٌ هُوَ الرَّبُّ وَحَمِيدٌ جِدًّا فِي مَدِينَةِ إِلهِنَا، جَبَلِ قُدْسِهِ.
              2 جَمِيلُ الارْتِفَاعِ، فَرَحُ كُلِّ الأَرْضِ، جَبَلُ صِهْيَوْنَ. فَرَحُ أَقَاصِي الشِّمَالِ، مَدِينَةُ الْمَلِكِ الْعَظِيمِ.
              3 اَللهُ فِي قُصُورِهَا يُعْرَفُ مَلْجَأً.

              النص من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
              (A Song and Psalm for the sons of Korah.) Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness.
              2 Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the sides of the north, the city of the great King.
              3 God is known in her palaces for a refuge.

              اقول : بعد قراءة كل من النصين يتبين ان المزمور يشبه هيكل الرب الموجود في صهيون - جبل اورشليم - بالمكان الذي يقطن فيه الاله صراحة ( و لا مكان للمجاز هنا ) . و هذه الفكرة (وجود الله داخل هيكل اورشليم حيث يوجد التابوت) هي فكرة مقتبسة من الشعوب الوثنية المجاورة حيث كانوا يعتقدن ان الهتهم تقطن اعالي الجبال فنجد مثلا ان النصوص الاوغاريتية تذكر صراحة ان الالهة كانت تسكن الجبال الشمالية و ان كرسي الاله الوثني بعل كان موجودا هناك .

              نقرا من كتاب The-Ugaritic-Baal-Cycle-Volume-II تاليف Mark S. Smith & Wayne Pitard الصفحة 62 و 63 :
              ((Baal’s mountain is the site of “victory” (tl’iyt), according to CAT 1.3 III 31 and 1.10 III 3. Similarly, Yahweh’s power is manifest terrestrially in the tradition of Jerusalem’s strength (Psalm 46). Its titles include terms of power and security, “refuge and stronghold” (maăseh wā‘ōz; Ps 46:2) and “haven” (miśgāb; Pss 46:8, 48:4). Great size is also an element of this discourse of strength (discussed below). Given the widespread nature of the discourse of power in West Semitic texts, power may be regarded as one of the dominant shared predications made between deities and their temples or mountains. Just as the deity guarantees the security of their temple/palace, the latter remains the terrestrial manifestation of the deity’s power. A further expression of participation and identification between god and temple involves holiness Smith (2001a:93–97) has discussed this element at length, so we will merely summarize here. Both gods and temples/mountains are referred to as “holy” in the Ugaritic texts. A common epithet of the gods is bn qdš, “sons of holiness,” or possibly, “sons of the Holy One” (CAT 1.2 I 20–21, 38; 1.17 I 3, 8, 10–11, 13, 22; cf. the Phoenician inscription KAI 4:4–5 referring to the deities in general as the “holy ones,” qdšm; cf. UBC 1. 294–95; Merlo 1997:50). Baal’s voice is called holy in the account of his great storm theophany in 1.4 VII 29. At the same time the mountain where Baal lives, Mount Sapan, is called qdš, “holy.” In the Aqhat Epic, the word is used specifi - cally as a synonym for “temple” (1.17 I 26 and parallels). The use of this term for deity, temple and sacred mountain is also found in the Hebrew Bible. Thus the temple mount in Jerusalem is called “his holy mountain” (har qodšô; Ps 48:2) and “the holy dwelling-place of the Most High” (qĕdôš miškĕnê ‘elyôn; Ps 46:5). Israelite texts also mention the Holy Ones collectively as a divine body or assembly led by Yahweh, their king (Ps 89:6b–7a). It is the god’s presence, of course, that imparts holiness to the location, and thus the temple gains its status through its participation with the god))
              http://www.ldsscriptureteachings.org...-Volume-II.pdf





              و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 529
              48:1. holy mountain. The book of Psalms repeatedly refers to Mount Zion as Yahweh’s “holy hill” or holy mountain (Ps 2:6; 3:4; 15:1; 43:3; 99:9). However, it should be understood that this place ascribes its importance and sanctity entirely from God’s presence there. Other sacred mountains are associated with the gods: Baal with Mount Zaphon, and Marduk and others with the artificial mountains, the ziggurat temples of Mesopotamia. 48:2. heights of Zaphon. This refers to Mount Casius (Jebel el-Aqra, elev. 5807 feet), twentyfive or thirty miles northeast of Ugarit, the mountain associated with the dwelling place of Baal (see the comment on Is 14:13). In Ugaritic literature Mount Zaphon is considered to be the mountain of the gods where the divine assembly meets. In the announcements of Baal’s messengers Mount Zaphon is praised as beautiful and a hill of victory. In the context of this psalm it may be serving either as a direction, north, or as a reference to the temple at Dan, technically on Mount Hermon at the northern boundary of Israel. However, it is also possible that in this psalm Yahweh is seen as a universal God who will replace all other gods in their sacred locales, with Zion becoming what Zaphon had once been considered, the seat of God.))
              file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (4).pdf

              و نقرا من PSALMS: THE HYMNAL OF ISRAEL, BOOK II (PSALMS 42-72)
              (( The problem with Psalm 48 is verse 2, "Mount Zion in the far north." These are only theories.
              1. It is metaphorical for heaven where YHWH dwells — Isa.14:13a,b; Rev. 3:12; 21:2,10
              2. It, like other Psalms, incorporates some Canaanite mythological terminology (i.e., Zaphon = Hebrew "north," BDB 8) — Isa. 14:13c,d; Ezek. 28:14
              It was common in Ancient Near Eastern religious thought to view the gods as living on mountain tops (cf. Gilgamesh Epic). This is especially true for the Ugaritic Ba'al myth poems from Ras Shamra. The gods met and lived on a northern mountain called Saphon or Zaphon. Ba'al had a throne there built by Anath. The male god of Phoenician fertility worship was called Baal Saphon. This name has been found in Phoenician colonies around the Mediterranean. This northern mountain tradition, totally unrelated to Israel's holy Mt. Moriah (cf. Ps. 20:40), seems to be the source of the imagery of both Isa. 14:13-15 and Ezek. 28:14,16. See Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel, vol. 2, pp. 279-281.))
              https://bible.org/seriespage/psalm-48

              هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

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              • #8
                المثال السابع : اقتباس نص مزمور 104 .

                وهو مزمور مليء بالاقتباسات من ثقافات الشعوب المجاورة (البابلية، و الاكادية و المصرية) و لكننا نكتفي بما اقتبسوه من النصوص الاوغاريتية .

                نقرا من مزمور 104:
                1 بَارِكِي يَا نَفْسِي الرَّبَّ. يَا رَبُّ إِلهِي، قَدْ عَظُمْتَ جِدًّا. مَجْدًا وَجَلاَلاً لَبِسْتَ.
                2 اللاَّبِسُ النُّورَ كَثَوْبٍ، الْبَاسِطُ السَّمَاوَاتِ كَشُقَّةٍ.
                3 الْمُسَقِّفُ عَلاَلِيَهُ بِالْمِيَاهِ. الْجَاعِلُ السَّحَابَ مَرْكَبَتَهُ، الْمَاشِي عَلَى أَجْنِحَةِ الرِّيحِ.
                4 الصَّانِعُ مَلاَئِكَتَهُ رِيَاحًا، وَخُدَّامَهُ نَارًا مُلْتَهِبَةً
                5 الْمُؤَسِّسُ الأَرْضَ عَلَى قَوَاعِدِهَا فَلاَ تَتَزَعْزَعُ إِلَى الدَّهْرِ وَالأَبَدِ.
                6 كَسَوْتَهَا الْغَمْرَ كَثَوْبٍ. فَوْقَ الْجِبَالِ تَقِفُ الْمِيَاهُ.
                7 مِنِ انْتِهَارِكَ تَهْرُبُ، مِنْ صَوْتِ رَعْدِكَ تَفِرُّ.

                8 تَصْعَدُ إِلَى الْجِبَالِ. تَنْزِلُ إِلَى الْبِقَاعِ، إِلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي أَسَّسْتَهُ لَهَا.
                9 وَضَعْتَ لَهَا تَخْمًا لاَ تَتَعَدَّاهُ. لاَ تَرْجعُ لِتُغَطِّيَ الأَرْضَ.
                10 اَلْمُفَجِّرُ عُيُونًا فِي الأَوْدِيَةِ. بَيْنَ الْجِبَالِ تَجْرِي.

                نقرا من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
                1 Bless the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, thou art very great; thou art clothed with honour and majesty.
                2 Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment: who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain:
                3 Who layeth the beams of his chambers in the waters: who maketh the clouds his chariot: who walketh upon the wings of the wind:
                4 Who maketh his angels spirits; his ministers a flaming fire:
                5 Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be removed for ever.
                6 Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment: the waters stood above the mountains.
                7 At thy rebuke they fled; at the voice of thy thunder they hasted away.
                8 They go up by the mountains; they go down by the valleys unto the place which thou hast founded for them.
                9 Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass over; that they turn not again to cover the earth.
                10 He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run among the hills.

                اقول : الاعداد 3-7 تحمل عبارات متشابهة لتلك الموجودة في النصوص الاوغاريتية المخصصة لدورة البعل بل ان الافكار الموجودة فيها تكاد تكون متطابقة مع ما نسب للاله الوثني بعل !
                و منها جعل السحب مركبة للرب فقد وصفت السحب في نصوص اوغاريت انها مركبة البعل ايضا
                !!!.

                نقرا من كتاب Ugarit and the Old Testament للمؤلف Peter C. Craigie الصفحة 77- 78 :
                (( The Ugaritic texts provide further light on the character of Psalm 104, especially in its opening verses. The language of the biblical poet in these verses bears a number of striking resemblances to the language employed in one of the stories concerning Baal. The Hebrew Psalmist describes the Lord as " the one who makes the clouds his chariots" (verse 3); Baal is described as "the rider of clouds". In the Psalm fire and flame are personifications of the minister of the Lord (verse 4); in the Baal text "fire and flame" are employed in the preparation of silver and gold for the building of Baal's palace. The voice of the Lord (verse 7) and the voice of Baal are both likened to thunder))








                و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 549 :
                ((104:3. cosmos as temple. The psalmist’s attemptto express God’s complete control overall creation includes a multistoried or manychamberedsanctuary or palace in the heavens(cf. Ps 78:69; Is 66:1). In the biblical and ancientNear Eastern view the cosmos was atemple and the temple was a microcosmos.The cosmos can therefore be described in architecturalterms as a temple would be.104:3. riding the clouds. The image of a rampantGod storming through the heavens in acloud chariot is a common one (Ps 68:4; Jer4:13). Such descriptions of storm theophanymay be found in the texts that speak of theUgaritic god Baal. In both the Aqhat epic andin the Baal and Anat cycle of stories, Baal isreferred to as the “rider of the clouds.” Baal’sattributes, commanding the storms, unleashingthe lightning and rushing to war as a divinewarrior, even appear in the Egyptian ElAmarna texts. The characteristics of Yahwehas Creator, giver of fertility and divine warriorshare a great deal in common with theseearlier epics. One of the ways that Yahwehpresents himself to the Israelites as the soledivine power is by assuming the titles andpowers of the other ancient Near Easterngods.104:4. winds, flames as messengers. In bothEnuma Elish and the Tale of Anzu the windscarry the news of the victory by the hero deityover the chaos monster. In the former, thenorth wind carries the blood of Tiamat as tidingsof her demise; in the latter, the feathers ofthe defeated Anzu are carried on the wind toEnlil. Flames of fire can refer to the destructivenessof God’s wrath (as can winds for that matter
                104:6-9. watery chaos. This does not refer tothe flood but to the initial creation narrativewhere the dry land emerged as all of the waterswere assigned their places. The defeat ofthe forces of chaos, personified in the primordialsea, was one of the most common elementsof ancient Near Eastern cosmology(Baal defeating Yamm in Ugaritic texts; Mardukdefeating Tiamat in Enuma Elish).
                104:9. boundary for waters. Marduk, afterhaving defeated Tiamat, created the seas andplaced guards to keep back the waters. TheBabylonian Atrahasis Epic refers to a bolt of thesea in the possession of the god Ea (Enki).Other texts speak of locks of the sea. One ofthe main tasks of the head of the pantheonwas to keep the sea in check so that chaoswould be restrained and order would prevail.One of the earliest reflections of this motif isfound in the Myth of Ninurta and Azag, whereNinurta builds a stone wall to contain the waters....104:26. Leviathan. See comment on 74:14))

                ونقرا ايضا من مزمور 104 :
                26 هُنَاكَ تَجْرِي السُّفُنُ. لِوِيَاثَانُ هذَا خَلَقْتَهُ لِيَلْعَبَ فِيهِ.

                و نقرا من ترجمة الملك جيمس :
                26 There go the ships: there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein.

                اقول : لا احتاج ان ازيد فكما اسلفنا سابقا فان لوياثان في الكتاب المقدس مخلوق اسطوري له نظير في المعتقدات و الاساطير الشعبية الخاصة بشعوب الشرق الادني القديم .

                نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 540- 541 :
                ((74:14. Leviathan. Leviathan has often beenidentified as a crocodile, which were foundmostly in Egypt (where it symbolized kinglypower and greatness), but also sparsely in Palestine.However, the multiple heads here andthe fiery breath in Job 41:19-21 make the crocodileidentification difficult. Alternatively,Leviathan has been depicted as a sea monster(see Is 27:1). Support for this is found in Ugaritictexts, which contain detailed descriptionsof a chaos beast, representing the seas or wateryanarchy, in the form of a many-headed,twisting sea serpent who is defeated by Baal.There is a close affinity between the descriptionof Leviathan in Isaiah as a “coiling serpent”and the Ugaritic Baal epic, whichspeaks of how the storm god “smote Litan thetwisting serpent,” which is described as havingseven heads. In both cases there is a senseof the god of order and fertility vanquishing achaos monster. In Akkadian literature there is a creature named bashmu that is described ashaving six tongues and seven mouths. In onetext bashmu is named alongside other fabulouscreatures including one with two heads andone with seven heads. The latter is also picturedon a cylinder seal. This seal shows fourof the heads hanging limp while the battlecontinues with the remaining three. Severalother passages in the Old Testament mentionLeviathan, but most of them speak in terms ofGod’s creative act that establishes control overwatery chaos (personified by the sea serpent).In Isaiah 27:1, however, that struggle betweenorder and chaos occurs at the end of time. Itmay be that the fall of Satan, portrayed as aseven-headed dragon in Revelation 12:3-9,also echoes the Ugaritic image of Litan as “thetyrant with seven heads.” Biblically, Leviathanwould therefore most easily fit into thecategory of “supernatural” creature (like cherubim)as opposed to natural or purely mythological.As such it may appear in extrabiblicalmythology, as well as being symbolized bysomething like a crocodile (as in Ezek 29:3,though Leviathan is not specifically referredto in that context).))
                file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame (5).pdf

                هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

                يتبع
                التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة محمد سني; الساعة 14 أبر, 2020, 11:58 م.

                تعليق


                • #9
                  المثال الثامن : اقتباس نص مزمور 89: 9-10 و مزمور 65 : 7 و مزمور 93 : 3 .

                  نقرا من مزمور 89 :
                  6.لأَنَّهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاءِ يُعَادِلُ الرَّبَّ. مَنْ يُشْبِهُ الرَّبَّ بَيْنَ أَبْنَاءِ اللهِ؟
                  7 إِلهٌ مَهُوبٌ جِدًّا فِي مُؤَامَرَةِ الْقِدِّيسِينَ، وَمَخُوفٌ عِنْدَ جَمِيعِ الَّذِينَ حَوْلَهُ.
                  8 يَا رَبُّ إِلهَ الْجُنُودِ، مَنْ مِثْلُكَ ؟ قَوِيٌّ، رَبٌّ، وَحَقُّكَ مِنْ حَوْلِكَ.
                  ​​​​​​9 أَنْتَ مُتَسَلِّطٌ عَلَى كِبْرِيَاءِ الْبَحْرِ. عِنْدَ ارْتِفَاعِ لُجَجِهِ أَنْتَ تُسَكِّنُهَا.
                  10 أَنْتَ سَحَقْتَ رَهَبَ مِثْلَ الْقَتِيلِ. بِذِرَاعِ قُوَّتِكَ بَدَّدْتَ أَعْدَاءَكَ.

                  و نقرا من مزمور 65 :
                  ​​​​​​7 الْمُهْدِّئُ عَجِيجَ الْبِحَارِ، عَجِيجَ أَمْوَاجِهَا، وَضَجِيجَ الأُمَمِ.

                  و نقرا من مزمور 93:
                  ​​​​​​3 رَفَعَتِ الأَنْهَارُ يَا رَبُّ، رَفَعَتِ الأَنْهَارُ صَوْتَهَا. تَرْفَعُ الأَنْهَارُ عَجِيجَهَا.

                  اقول : النصوص السابقة تقتبس الفكرة المتداولة لدى شعوب لشرق الادنى القديم الا و هي وجود البحار و الانهار في حالة اضطراب دائم و هذا تجسيد للتفكير القديم الذي يرى المياه و اليابسة في حالة صراع دائم . و نجد في النصوص الاوغاريتية انتصار الاله الوثني بعل الممثل باله الرياح على الاله الوثني يم الممثل باله البحار بعد صراع.
                  و كذلك نجد في المزمور 89 اقتباسين مهمين :
                  1. العدد العاشر يمثل انتصار الرب على رهب و يعتقد انه مخلوق اسطوري انتصر عليه الرب قبل خلق الكون و هذا بحد ذاته مقتبس من القصص الاسطورية المتداولة بين شعوب الشرق الادنى في ذلك الوقت من انتصار الهتهم و طواغيتهم على بعض الكائنات الاسطورية قبل او في بداية خلق الكون .
                  2. العددان السادس و السابع يمثلان وجود الرب بين مجمع الالهة حيث يمجد النص يهوه فوق بقية الالهة من ابناء الله !!


                  نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 545 :
                  (( 89:7. council of the holy ones. In the ancient Near East the major decisions were all made in the divine council. There the gods would consult with one another and share their information and opinions. The familiar picture of a heavenly throne surrounded by the divine assembly is well known from the Ugaritic texts (most notably the epic of Keret), though this Canaanite council is made up of the gods of the pantheon. Examples occur also in the tenthcentury building inscription of Yehimilk from Byblos and the Karatepe stele of Azitawadda. In the Akkadian Enuma Elish it is the assembly of the gods that appoints Marduk as their head. Fifty gods made up this assembly with seven in the inner council. In Israelite belief the gods were replaced by angels or spirits—the sons of God or the heavenly host.
                  89:9. rule over the surging sea. In the Bible as well as in the ancient Near East the sea represents chaos and disorder, as do the sea monsters that live there. The obvious physical struggle between the sea and the land as well as the fierce, seemingly unstoppable energy displayed by the savage sea gave rise to cosmic myths in the ancient Near East. The Enuma Elish creation epic from Babylon describes how Marduk vanquishes Tiamat while this goddess of watery chaos is in the form of a dragon. Much of the cycle of stories about Baal in Ugaritic legend involves Baal’s struggle against his rival Yamm, the god of the sea. Similarly, the Ugaritic epic has both Anat and Baal claim to have conquered Litan, the seven-headed dragon, and thus gained mastery over the seas. Rule over the sea then concerns Yahweh’s sovereign control over the chaotic forces that were thought to constantly threaten the cosmos. That rule is expressed by the calming of the sea (see comments on 65:7 and 107:29).
                  89:10. Rahab. Rahab is described as one of the sea monsters slain by God (see Job 26:12 and Is 51:9). In both the Babylonian and the Ugaritic myths of creation the champion deity (Marduk in Babylon and Baal in Ugarit) fights and slays a sea monster and its cohorts in a manner similar to that of Yahweh. In other contexts, Rahab is symbolically used as a designation for Egypt (Is 30:7 and Ps 87:4). The name Rahab has not yet been found in extrabiblical sources))
                  ​​​​​​file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame%20(6).pdf

                  و نقرا من الصفحة The eschatologization of the divine conflict with the dragon and the sea الفصل الرابع God's conflict with the dragon and the sea لجون داي الفصل الرابع الصفحة 162 :
                  ((Yam (CTA 2.IV.32 = KTU 1.2.IV.32), and Baal is also credited with defeating the seven-headed sea monster Leviathan (CTA 5.I.1-3 = KTU 1.5.I.1-3), who appears to have been an associate of Yam (cf. CTA 3.IIID.35-9 = KTU 1.3.III.38-42). In this connection it is interesting to note that Rev. 12:3, 13:1 and 17:3 actually credit the ten-horned dragon and beast (both reflecting the fourth beast of Dan. 7) with seven heads. There are a number of passages in the Old Testament which allude to God’s battle with the sea monster (e.g. Is. 27:1; Job 26:12-13; Ps. 74:13-14, 89:10f., ET 9f.) which have been considered above, and from a number of expressions used (Leviathan, twisting serpent, crooked serpent) it is clear that it is Canaanite mythology rather than, say, the Babylonian myth of Marduk and Tiamat (as Gunkel thought and as some scholars still erroneously suppose) which underlies these Old Testament references (cf. above. Chapter I).59 When in Dan. 7 we find God in opposition to sea monsters, we are therefore led to postulate an ultimate Canaanite myth there also))
                  ​​​​​​https://jbburnett.com/resources/day_...ict-dragon.pdf

                  هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

                  يتبع

                  تعليق


                  • #10
                    المثال التاسع : اقتباس نص مزمور 68 .

                    نقرا من مزمور 68 :
                    4 غَنُّوا للهِ. رَنِّمُوا لاسْمِهِ. أَعِدُّوا طَرِيقًا لِلرَّاكِبِ فِي الْقِفَارِ بِاسْمِهِ يَاهْ، وَاهْتِفُوا أَمَامَهُ.....
                    22 قَالَ الرَّبُّ: «مِنْ بَاشَانَ أُرْجعُ. أُرْجعُ مِنْ أَعْمَاقِ الْبَحْرِ،
                    23 لِكَيْ تَصْبغَ رِجْلَكَ بِالدَّمِ. أَلْسُنُ كِلاَبِكَ مِنَ الأَعْدَاءِ نَصِيبُهُمْ»....
                    33 لِلرَّاكِبِ عَلَى سَمَاءِ السَّمَاوَاتِ الْقَدِيمَةِ. هُوَذَا يُعْطِي صَوْتَهُ صَوْتَ قُوَّةٍ.

                    اقول : العددان الرابع و الثالث و الثلاثون فيه اقتباس مباشر لفكرة ركوب الاله السحاب من النصوص الاوغاريتية التي جعلت السحب - كما ذكرنا سابقا - مركبة الاله الوثني بعل . و العدد الثالث و العشرون مقتبس من فكرة التصبغ او التمريغ بدماء اعدائك التي نقرا صداها في ملحمة الصراع بين الاله الوثني بعل و بين الالهة انات .

                    نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 538 :
                    (( 68:4. rides on the clouds. In Ugaritic epic literature the storm god Baal is regularly referred to as the “rider of the clouds.” References can be found in both the Baal and Anat cycle and in the story of the hero Aqhat. This image of power over the winds and weather comes into the Psalms as another example of how the stories from other cultures have been restructured to demonstrate Yahweh’s universal control over nature and nations (see Ps 104:3; Jer 4:13). It also serves as a polemic against belief in any other god who might be thought to provide the fertility God promises in the covenant...
                    68:23. feet washed in the blood of enemies. The poetic language attached to battle reports can at times be rather grisly. This is certainly the case with this phrase (also used in Ps 58:10). The similar image of wading through the blood of one’s enemies is also found in the Ugaritic epic of Baal and Anath. There the goddess gleefully slaughtered whole armies and “waded knee-deep in the warriors’ blood.”...
                    ​​​​​​68:33. rides the ancient skies. See comment on 68:4.))
                    file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame%20(7).pdf

                    هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

                    يتبع

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                    • #11
                      المثال العاشر : اقتباس نص سفر دانيال الاصحاح السابع .

                      نقرا من سفر دانيال الاصحاح السابع
                      1 فِي السَّنَةِ الأُولَى لِبَيْلْشَاصَّرَ مَلِكِ بَابِلَ، رَأَى دَانِيآلُ حُلْمًا وَرُؤَى رَأْسِهِ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ. حِينَئِذٍ كَتَبَ الْحُلْمَ وَأَخْبَرَ بِرَأْسِ الْكَلاَمِ.
                      2 أَجَابَ دَانِيآلُ وَقَالَ: «كُنْتُ أَرَى فِي رُؤْيَايَ لَيْلاً وَإِذَا بِأَرْبَعِ رِيَاحِ السَّمَاءِ هَجَمَتْ عَلَى الْبَحْرِ الْكَبِيرِ.
                      3 وَصَعِدَ مِنَ الْبَحْرِ أَرْبَعَةُ حَيَوَانَاتٍ عَظِيمَةٍ، هذَا مُخَالِفٌ ذَاكَ.
                      4 الأَوَّلُ كَالأَسَدِ وَلَهُ جَنَاحَا نَسْرٍ. وَكُنْتُ أَنْظُرُ حَتَّى انْتَتَفَ جَنَاحَاهُ وَانْتَصَبَ عَنِ الأَرْضِ، وَأُوقِفَ عَلَى رِجْلَيْنِ كَإِنْسَانٍ، وَأُعْطِيَ قَلْبَ إِنْسَانٍ.
                      5 وَإِذَا بِحَيَوَانٍ آخَرَ ثَانٍ شَبِيهٍ بِالدُّبِّ، فَارْتَفَعَ عَلَى جَنْبٍ وَاحِدٍ وَفِي فَمِهِ ثَلاَثُ أَضْلُعٍ بَيْنَ أَسْنَانِهِ، فَقَالُوا لَهُ هكَذَا: قُمْ كُلْ لَحْمًا كَثِيرًا.
                      6 وَبَعْدَ هذَا كُنْتُ أَرَى وَإِذَا بِآخَرَ مِثْلِ النَّمِرِ وَلَهُ عَلَى ظَهْرِهِ أَرْبَعَةُ أَجْنِحَةِ طَائِرٍ. وَكَانَ لِلْحَيَوَانِ أَرْبَعَةُ رُؤُوسٍ، وَأُعْطِيَ سُلْطَانًا.
                      7 بَعْدَ هذَا كُنْتُ أَرَى فِي رُؤَى اللَّيْلِ وَإِذَا بِحَيَوَانٍ رَابعٍ هَائِل وَقَوِيٍّ وَشَدِيدٍ جِدًّا، وَلَهُ أَسْنَانٌ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ كَبِيرَةٌ. أَكَلَ وَسَحَقَ وَدَاسَ الْبَاقِيَ بِرِجْلَيْهِ. وَكَانَ مُخَالِفًا لِكُلِّ الْحَيَوَانَاتِ الَّذِينَ قَبْلَهُ، وَلَهُ عَشَرَةُ قُرُونٍ.

                      8 كُنْتُ مُتَأَمِّلاً بِالْقُرُونِ، وَإِذَا بِقَرْنٍ آخَرَ صَغِيرٍ طَلَعَ بَيْنَهَا، وَقُلِعَتْ ثَلاَثَةٌ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ الأُولَى مِنْ قُدَّامِهِ، وَإِذَا بِعُيُونٍ كَعُيُونِ الإِنْسَانِ فِي هذَا الْقَرْنِ، وَفَمٍ مُتَكَلِّمٍ بِعَظَائِمَ.
                      9 كُنْتُ أَرَى أَنَّهُ وُضِعَتْ عُرُوشٌ، وَجَلَسَ الْقَدِيمُ الأَيَّامِ. لِبَاسُهُ أَبْيَضُ كَالثَّلْجِ، وَشَعْرُ رَأْسِهِ كَالصُّوفِ النَّقِيِّ، وَعَرْشُهُ لَهِيبُ نَارٍ، وَبَكَرَاتُهُ نَارٌ مُتَّقِدَةٌ.
                      10 نَهْرُ نَارٍ جَرَى وَخَرَجَ مِنْ قُدَّامِهِ. أُلُوفُ أُلُوفٍ تَخْدِمُهُ، وَرَبَوَاتُ رَبَوَاتٍ وُقُوفٌ قُدَّامَهُ. فَجَلَسَ الدِّينُ، وَفُتِحَتِ الأَسْفَارُ.

                      11 كُنْتُ أَنْظُرُ حِينَئِذٍ مِنْ أَجْلِ صَوْتِ الْكَلِمَاتِ الْعَظِيمَةِ الَّتِي تَكَلَّمَ بِهَا الْقَرْنُ. كُنْتُ أَرَى إِلَى أَنْ قُتِلَ الْحَيَوَانُ وَهَلَكَ جِسْمُهُ وَدُفِعَ لِوَقِيدِ النَّارِ.
                      12 أَمَّا بَاقِي الْحَيَوَانَاتِ فَنُزِعَ عَنْهُمْ سُلْطَانُهُمْ، وَلكِنْ أُعْطُوا طُولَ حَيَاةٍ إِلَى زَمَانٍ وَوَقْتٍ.
                      13 «كُنْتُ أَرَى فِي رُؤَى اللَّيْلِ وَإِذَا مَعَ سُحُبِ السَّمَاءِ مِثْلُ ابْنِ إِنْسَانٍ أَتَى وَجَاءَ إِلَى الْقَدِيمِ الأَيَّامِ، فَقَرَّبُوهُ قُدَّامَهُ.
                      14 فَأُعْطِيَ سُلْطَانًا وَمَجْدًا وَمَلَكُوتًا لِتَتَعَبَّدَ لَهُ كُلُّ الشُّعُوبِ وَالأُمَمِ وَالأَلْسِنَةِ. سُلْطَانُهُ سُلْطَانٌ أَبَدِيٌّ مَا لَنْ يَزُولَ، وَمَلَكُوتُهُ مَا لاَ يَنْقَرِضُ.

                      15 «أَمَّا أَنَا دَانِيآلَ فَحَزِنَتْ رُوحِي فِي وَسَطِ جِسْمِي وَأَفْزَعَتْنِي رُؤَى رَأْسِي.))

                      اقول : كل ما في الاعلى من اوصاف الوحوش الاربعة متاثر و مقتبس بطريق غير مباشر من الاساطير و المعتقدات الكنعانية و كذلك ما ذكر عن ابن الانسان و القاديم الجالس يماثل ما ذكر في النصوص الاوغاريتية عن ايل و عن الاله الوثني بعل .
                      نقرا من من كتاب The eschatologization of the divine conflict with the dragon and the sea الفصل الرابع God's conflict with the dragon and the sea:
                      ((There can be no doubt, in the light of the material considered earlier in this monograph, that the motif of the turbulent sea hostile to God is of Canaanite origin, and it will emerge in the course of this chapter that the imagery of the one like a son of man enthroned by the Ancient of Days over the beasts of the sea is likewise ultimately Canaanite in origin, deriving from the enthronement of (Yahweh-)Baal by El over Yam and his accompanying dragons (Leviathan, etc.). Whilst the four beasts, and especially the last, appear to play the role ascribed to the dragon Leviathan in Canaanite mythology, the fact remains that the precise form of the beasts does not correspond to that of Leviathan and the other 153 dragons attested in Ugaritic (cf. CTA 3.IIID.37-43 = KTU 1.3.III.40-46)........
                      In conclusion, therefore, it may be maintained that, though the element of the cosmic sea hostile to God has been taken up from Canaanite mythology, the fundamental basis for the four types of beast is drawn from Hos. 13:7-8, with some influence from ancient near eastern Mischwesen......
                      ​​​​​​There is, however, another view which seeks the ultimate origin of the one like a son of man in a Canaanite divine being and which has great plausibility. It was first enunciated in 1958 by J.A. Emerton,52 and also in the same year in far less detail by L. Rost.I shall now consider in detail the arguments adduced in support of this ultimately Canaanite origin of the Son of Man imagery in Dan.7
                      (i) God is represented as the Ancient of Days and posseses white hair (v. 9), i.e. he is depicted as an old man. This is unique in the entire Old Testament. It agrees admirably, however, withthe supreme god of the Ugaritic pantheon. El, who is called ‘ab ^snm ‘Father of Years’ (CTA 4:IV:24 = KTU 1.4.IV.24, etc.). ......
                      (ii) Just as the one like a son of man comes with the clouds of heaven, so Baal’s stock epithet is rkb ‘rpt ‘Rider of the clouds’ 162 (CTA 2.IV.8, 29 = KTU 1.2.IV.8, 29, etc.). As Emerton has pointed out,58 since elsewhere in the Old Testament it is always the deity who manifests himself in the clouds, it is probable that a divine being underlies the one like a son of man.
                      ​​​​​​(iii) The rise to power of the one like a son of man follows the destruction of the sea monsters, especially the fourth one. Although not explicitly stated, we are probably to understand that the one like a son of man himself (under God) defeated the dragon, in view of the fact that the previously mentioned dragon-symbolized empires each in turn (under God) overthrew the one that preceded it. This recalls Baal, whose kingship was assured by defeating the god of the sea ​​​​​​Yam (CTA 2.IV.32 = KTU 1.2.IV.32), and Baal is also credited with defeating the seven-headed sea monster Leviathan (CTA 5.I.1-3 = KTU 1.5.I.1-3), who appears to have been an associate of Yam (cf. CTA 3.IIID.35-9 = KTU 1.3.III.38-42)....
                      ​​​​​​A frequently expressed doubt about the theory of an ultimately Canaanite origin of the Son of Man imagery is the long period of time separating the Ugaritic texts (ca. 1350 B.C.) from the time of the composition of the book of Daniel (ca. 165 B.C.). However, this theory does not postulate a direct Canaanite influence on the book of Daniel. Rather, the mythology was handed down in the Jerusalem cult at the Autumn Festival, as has been indicated in Chapter 1. It is commonly accepted by scholars that the theme of the divine conflict with the dragon, with which the kingship of Yahweh was associated, had its Sitz im Leben at this festival, even by those who prefer not to speak of it as an Enthronement Festival. Various Old Testament texts show that the myth of God’s battle with the dragon was known in Israel as late as the exilic and post-exilic periods, a remarkable example being the passage from Is. 27:1 discussed earlier in this chapter. What is peculiar about the source underlying Dan. 7, unlike these Old Testament texts, is that it preserves a more primitive, Canaanitizing version of the myth in which a distinction is still made between the god who is supreme and the one who is enthroned over the dragon.))
                      https://jbburnett.com/resources/day_...ict-dragon.pdf

                      و نقرا من The IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament الصفحة 740 - 741 :
                      ((7:3. out of the sea. In the Bible as well as in the ancient Near East, the sea represents chaos and disorder, as do the sea monsters that live there. The obvious physical struggle between the sea and the land as well as the fierce, seemingly unstoppable energy displayed by the savage sea gave rise to cosmic myths in the ancient Near East. The Enuma Elish creation epic from Babylon describes how Marduk vanquished Tiamat, goddess of watery chaos, while she was in the form of a dragon. Much of the cycle of stories about Baal in Ugaritic legend involve Baal’s struggle against his rival Yamm, the god of the sea. Similarly, the Ugaritic epic has both Anat and Baal claim to have conquered Litan, the seven-headed dragon, and thus gained mastery over the seas. In Psalm 104:26 Yahweh is said to play with Leviathan, and in Job 41:1-11 God challenges Job to show the same control over Leviathan that God has. The kingdoms represented by these beasts are therefore associated with the forces of chaos that bring disorder to God’s world and need to be overcome.....
                      ​​​​​​7:9. Ancient of Days. In Canaanite mythology the head of the pantheon is El, an aged deity addressed by the title “father of years.” In the Mesopotamian Anzu Myth the ancient one is a goddess, Mami, whose son defeats the monster (Anzu) and is granted dominion....
                      7:13-14. son of man. The phrase “son of man” is simply a common Semitic expression to describe someone or something as human or, at least, humanlike. In Israelite theology, Yahweh is the high God and also is portrayed as the rider on the clouds. In Canaanite mythology, the roles described here are filled by the god El, the high god of great age (see comment on 7:9) and his son, Baal, the rider on the clouds. In one of the Baal myths, Yamm, who represents the chaos of the sea, is defeated, and Baal is declared king and granted everlasting dominion. In the cosmic conflict myths of Mesopotamia (such as Enuma Elish or the Anzu Myth) a deity (Marduk and Ninurta respectively) defeats the threatening chaos and regains authority and dominion for the gods and for himself. Daniel has been trained in such literature, and his revelations build on that familiarity, though the common motifs are entirely repackaged. Intertestamental literature such as the book of 1 Enoch as well as New Testament and early Christian literature identifies the son of man with the Messiah. ))
                      file:///Users/MacbookPro/Downloads/Bible_Background_Commentary--Old_Testame%20(8).pdf

                      هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

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                      • #12
                        المثال الحادي عشر : اقتباس نص سفر الخروج 15 .

                        نقرا من سفر الخروج الاصحاح 15
                        (( 1. حِينَئِذٍ رَنَّمَ مُوسَى وَبَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ هذِهِ التَّسْبِيحَةَ لِلرَّبِّ وَقَالُوا: «أُرَنِّمُ لِلرَّبِّ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ تَعَظَّمَ. الْفَرَسَ وَرَاكِبَهُ طَرَحَهُمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ.
                        2 الرَّبُّ قُوَّتِي وَنَشِيدِي، وَقَدْ صَارَ خَلاَصِي. هذَا إِلهِي فَأُمَجِّدُهُ، إِلهُ أَبِي فَأُرَفِّعُهُ.
                        3 الرَّبُّ رَجُلُ الْحَرْبِ. الرَّبُّ اسْمُهُ.
                        4 مَرْكَبَاتُ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَيْشُهُ أَلْقَاهُمَا فِي الْبَحْرِ، فَغَرِقَ أَفْضَلُ جُنُودِهِ الْمَرْكَبِيَّةِ فِي بَحْرِ سُوفَ،
                        5 تُغَطِّيهِمُ اللُّجَجُ. قَدْ هَبَطُوا فِي الأَعْمَاقِ كَحَجَرٍ.
                        6 يَمِينُكَ يَا رَبُّ مُعْتَزَّةٌ بِالْقُدْرَةِ. يَمِينُكَ يَا رَبُّ تُحَطِّمُ الْعَدُوَّ.
                        7 وَبِكَثْرَةِ عَظَمَتِكَ تَهْدِمُ مُقَاوِمِيكَ. تُرْسِلُ سَخَطَكَ فَيَأْكُلُهُمْ كَالْقَشِّ،
                        8 وَبِرِيحِ أَنْفِكَ تَرَاكَمَتِ الْمِيَاهُ. انْتَصَبَتِ الْمَجَارِيَ كَرَابِيَةٍ. تَجَمَّدَتِ اللُّجَجُ فِي قَلْبِ الْبَحْرِ.
                        9 قَالَ الْعَدُوُّ: أَتْبَعُ، أُدْرِكُ، أُقَسِّمُ غَنِيمَةً. تَمْتَلِئُ مِنْهُمْ نَفْسِي. أُجَرِّدُ سَيْفِي. تُفْنِيهِمْ يَدِي.
                        10 نَفَخْتَ بِرِيحِكَ فَغَطَّاهُمُ الْبَحْرُ. غَاصُوا كَالرَّصَاصِ فِي مِيَاهٍ غَامِرَةٍ.
                        11 مَنْ مِثْلُكَ بَيْنَ الآلِهَةِ يَا رَبُّ؟ مَنْ مِثْلُكَ مُعْتَزًّا فِي الْقَدَاسَةِ، مَخُوفًا بِالتَّسَابِيحِ، صَانِعًا عَجَائِبَ؟
                        12 تَمُدُّ يَمِينَكَ فَتَبْتَلِعُهُمُ الأَرْضُ.
                        13 تُرْشِدُ بِرَأْفَتِكَ الشَّعْبَ الَّذِي فَدَيْتَهُ. تَهْدِيهِ بِقُوَّتِكَ إِلَى مَسْكَنِ قُدْسِكَ.
                        14 يَسْمَعُ الشُّعُوبُ فَيَرْتَعِدُونَ. تَأْخُذُ الرَّعْدَةُ سُكَّانَ فِلِسْطِينَ.

                        15 حِينَئِذٍ يَنْدَهِشُ أُمَرَاءُ أَدُومَ. أَقْوِيَاءُ مُوآبَ تَأْخُذُهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ. يَذُوبُ جَمِيعُ سُكَّانِ كَنْعَانَ.
                        16 تَقَعُ عَلَيْهِمِ الْهَيْبَةُ وَالرُّعْبُ. بِعَظَمَةِ ذِرَاعِكَ يَصْمُتُونَ كَالْحَجَرِ حَتَّى يَعْبُرَ شَعْبُكَ يَا رَبُّ. حَتَّى يَعْبُرَ الشَّعْبُ الَّذِي اقْتَنَيْتَهُ.
                        17 تَجِيءُ بِهِمْ وَتَغْرِسُهُمْ فِي جَبَلِ مِيرَاثِكَ، الْمَكَانِ الَّذِي صَنَعْتَهُ يَا رَبُّ لِسَكَنِكَ الْمَقْدِسِ الَّذِي هَيَّأَتْهُ يَدَاكَ يَا رَبُّ.
                        18 الرَّبُّ يَمْلِكُ إِلَى الدَّهْرِ وَالأَبَدِ».))

                        اقول : هذه ترنيمة مشهورة و منسوبة الى موسى عليه الصلاة و السلام و بني اسرائيل لما نجاهم الله من فرعون و اغرقه و جنده و نجد في السياق فكرة مشتركة مع شعوب الشرق الادنى و منهم الشعوب الكنعانية و اساطيرها المتعلقة ببعل و اخص بالذكر هنا العدد الحادي عشر الذي يشير و بكل صراحة " من مثلك بين الالهة يا رب" فالرب هنا ليس الها متفردا بالالوهية و انما اله ضمن مجموعة من الالهة و لكنه يمثل الاله القومي لاسرائيل !!!!! و هذه بلا شك فكرة وثنية بحتة مقتبسة من الشعوب الكنعانية التي سكنت منطقة كنعان بالاضافة الى بعض العبارات في السياق و التي تشابه تلك الموجودة في النصوص الاوغاريتية واترك المصدر ادناه يتحدث .

                        نقرا من Distinctions with a Difference: Essays on Myth, History, and Scripture في الفصل The Song of the Sea and the Subversion of Canaanite Myth: A Missional Reading:
                        ((Te aim of this essay is to explore how Israel’s celebration of YHWH’s victory at the Sea in the poetry of Exodus 15:1b–18 models a missional engagement with the late Bronze/early Iron Age culture and enhances Israel’s presentation of the LORD as king of the cosmos (Hunsberger 2016:59–62). Exodus 15:1b–18 shares its structure and language in common with the Canaanite Baal Epic. Although Exodus 15:1b–18 is not myth, its allusions to Canaanite mythic themes and deployment of the broad structure of Baal’s story allow Israel’s proclamation of YHWH’s victory over the powers of Egypt to subvert Canaanite myth and ofer an alternative worldview (Russell 2016:135–136). .......
                        ​​​​​​I argue here that through a missional reading of the Bible, the allusions to and appropriations of mythic literature can enhance our understanding of special revelation by demonstrating that it models an incarnational or missional approach to the peoples of the ancient world. Rather than demonstrating the lack of uniqueness of the Bible because of its continuity with Near Eastern literature, the close ties actually are the means by which scripture’s special revelation connects cogently to its audience to subvert the Canaanite worldview for both Israelites and Canaanites who may encounter Israel’s story (Currid 2013:131–141).1 Tis leads to the possibility of true conversion from a pagan worldview to a biblical one in the service of God’s mission to bless the nations through the people of God (Gen 12:3b; Exodus 19:4–6)........
                        ​​​​​​A close reading of Exodus 15:1b–18 reveals broad narrative parallels with the Baal Cycle as well as close linguistic ties (Craigie 1971:19–26, Cross 1973:112–144, and Russell 2007:39–42 and 69–71). Te argument for the connection between Exodus 15:1b–18 and the Baal Cycle does not stand on any one specifc piece of data but on the preponderance of evidence. First, the Song of the Sea narrates the deliverance at the sea, YHWH’s guidance of his people to his holy mountain, and final acclamation of YHWH’s kingship in roughly the same order as Baal’s story:
                        ....... B. Implied Proclamation of Kingship. Exodus 15:11 uses the language of incomparability. At this point in the Baal Cycle, Yamm declares Baal king (CAT 1.3 III: 28–31). Te explicit language of kingship is not present in the Song until 15:18. However the language of incomparability serves a similar function. Mann states that YHWH’s elevation over all other gods is nowhere more clear than in Exodus 15:11 (1977:125)........
                        D. Sanctuary on YHWH’s Holy Mountain. Exodus 15:13 and 17 detail YHWH’s guidance of God’s people to his holy mountain, the mountain of his inheritance. Te language of 15:17 mimics the terminology used for Baal’s shrine on Zaphan (see below).....
                        ​​​​​​Second, there are two striking linguistic ties that link these two ancient poems.5 Exodus 15:17 describes YHWH’s sacred mountain using the same phraseology as the Baal Cycle deploys in reference to Mount Zaphan (Hess 2007:100, Russell 2007:41, Smith 1997:168n64):

                        You brought and planted them on the mountain of your inheritance,
                        The place for your habitation, you made O YHWH;
                        Te sanctuary, O YHWH, your hands have established (italics added, Exod 15:17)

                        Come and I will reveal it, in the midst of my mountain Divine Zaphan
                        In the holy mount of my heritage,
                        In the beautiful hill of my might (italics added, CAT 1.3 III:28–31)


                        Also, the concluding declaration of YHWH’s rule (Exod 15:18) is identical to Yamm’s words
                        : YHWH will reign (Exod 15:18a)
                        Baal will reign (CAT 1.2 IV:32 and 34–35)
                        ........
                        The Song of the Sea follows the general structure of the Baal Cycle, but narrates the conficts as a this-world, human-centered account. This is crucial to the rhetorical power of the Song......
                        The Song of the Sea models a profound understanding of human needs and the communication of transformational truth. Cross and Freedman’s description of the song as national anthem captures the power of its language (1955:237n. f ). Exodus 15:1b–18 serves as a declaration of YHWH’s victory on behalf of God’s people following the exodus, but its use of mythic language and themes transcends YHWH’s direct intervention in human afairs during the late Bronze age and extends these implications to all who would declare YHWH’s eternal kingship. Exodus 15:1b–18 reminds insiders of the identity, character, and mission of YHWH. It announces to outsiders the incomparability of YHWH and with it an implicit invitation to proclaim with God’s people “YHWH will reign.” The ties between the Song of the Sea and the Baal Cycle serve as a missional model for God’s twenty-frst century people))
                        https://place.asburyseminary.edu/cgi...=academicbooks

                        هذا وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

                        يتبع

                        تعليق


                        • #13
                          خاتمة :

                          الحمد لله الذي بنعمته تتم الصالحات ، الحمد لله حمدا كثيرا، الحمد لله عدد خلقه و عدد الحصى و عدد نجوم السماء ، اللهم لا تدع لنا ذنبا الا غفرته ربنا لا تزغ قلوبنا بعد اذ هديتها .

                          ادعو الله ان اكون وفقت في هذه السلسلة البسيطة و ليعلم القارئ الكريم انني استثنيت من سلسلتي ما يلي
                          :

                          1. امثلة اخرى كثيرة لاقتباسات العهد القديم من النصوص الاوغاريتية و افكار الشعوب الكنعانية في مواضع مختلفة (كسفر ايوب و سفر القضاة ) اذ ان السلسلة قائمة على ضرب بعض الامثلة و ليس حصر جميع الاقتباسات .

                          2. اقتباسات العهد القديم لنصوص و معتقدات شعوب بلاد ما بين النهرين ( البابلية و الاكادية و الاشورية ) و كذلك اقتباسات العهد اقديم لاشعار و افكار الفراعنة .

                          3. بعض الافكار المشتركة بين جميع شعوب الشرق الادنى ، و ان كان من ضمنها اذ السلسلة مخصصة في ابراز الافكار المشتركة او المقتبسة من الشعوب الكنعانية المجاورة لبني اسرائيل .


                          هذا ما عندي فان اصبت من الله و ان اخطات فمن الشيطان و من نفسي

                          وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد و على اله وصحبه وسلم

                          تعليق


                          • #14
                            جميع الصور في المنشور لا تظهر
                            "يا أيُّها الَّذٍينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قوَّاميِنَ للهِ شُهَدَاء بِالقِسْطِ ولا يَجْرِمنَّكُم شَنئانُ قوْمٍ على ألّا تَعْدِلوا اعدِلُوا هُوَ أقربُ لِلتّقْوى
                            رحم الله من قرأ قولي وبحث في أدلتي ثم أهداني عيوبي وأخطائي
                            *******************
                            موقع نداء الرجاء لدعوة النصارى لدين الله .... .... مناظرة "حول موضوع نسخ التلاوة في القرآن" .... أبلغ عن مخالفة أو أسلوب غير دعوي .... حوار حوْل "مصحف ابن مسْعود , وقرآنية المعوذتين " ..... حديث شديد اللهجة .... حِوار حوْل " هل قالتِ اليهود عُزيْرٌ بنُ الله" .... عِلْم الرّجال عِند امة محمد ... تحدّي مفتوح للمسيحية ..... حوار حوْل " القبلة : وادي البكاء وبكة " .... ضيْفتنا المسيحية ...الحجاب والنقاب ..حكم إلهي أخفاه عنكم القساوسة .... يعقوب (الرسول) أخو الرب يُكذب و يُفحِم بولس الأنطاكي ... الأرثوذكسية المسيحية ماهي إلا هرْطقة أبيونية ... مكة مذكورة بالإسْم في سفر التكوين- ترجمة سعيد الفيومي ... حوار حول تاريخية مكة (بكة)
                            ********************
                            "وأما المشبهة : فقد كفرهم مخالفوهم من أصحابنا ومن المعتزلة
                            وكان الأستاذ أبو إسحاق يقول : أكفر من يكفرني وكل مخالف يكفرنا فنحن نكفره وإلا فلا.
                            والذي نختاره أن لا نكفر أحدا من أهل القبلة "
                            (ابن تيْمِيَة : درء تعارض العقل والنقل 1/ 95 )

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